Answer: e. None of the above, they all rely on machine learning
Of all the possible responses, it’s tempting to decide that maybe GPS systems don’t really use machine learning, but the reality is that many do! Machine learning helps your GPS system do predictive analysis and proactively suggest you avoid locations along your route that are typically congested during your time of travel. Systems also use machine learning to recommend a nearby gas station when you’ve been travelling a distance that’s resulted in the need to re-fuel.
Reference: 9 Applications of Machine Learning from Day-to-Day Life